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CHRONOLOGY OF KEY EVENTS IN THE ‘ENGLISH’ CIVIL WAR.

 

OVERVIEW

1st Bishops’ War – 1639     2cd Bishop’s War  – 1640

 

The Irish Rebellion  1641-1653.

1st Civil War – 1642-1646

2nd Civil War 1647-1648

3rd Civil War 1649-1651  

The Commonwealth 1649-1653

Oliver Cromwell’s Protectorate – 1654-1658

DETAILED YEAR BY YEAR CHRONOLOGY

 

            The major battles are highlighted in capital letters.

 

                                                1599

 

25th April – Birth of Oliver Cromwell

 

                                                1600

Birth of Sir Philip Skippon (exact date unknown)

 

19th November - Birth of Prince Charles Stuart, Later King Charles The First.

 

                                                1606

 

19th June Birth of the Duke Of Hamilton.

 

                                                1609

 

16th November – Birth of Henrietta-Maria.

 

                                                1618

 

23rd May – Outbreak of the Thirty Years War.

 

                                                1625

 

27th March  – Death of King James 1st.  Succession of Charles 1st.

11th May – Proxy marriage service for Charles The First and the fifteen year old Catholic Queen Henrietta-Maria, in Paris.

12th June – Charles is united with his Queen at Dover for the first time since their wedding.

 

1626

2cd February – English Coronation ceremony for King Charles The First. .

 

                                    1627

 

23rd August – The assassination of the Duke Of Buckingham.

 

                                    1530

 

29th May – The Birth of the future Charles The Second.

 

                                    1633

 

19th June – Scottish Coronation ceremony for King Charles The First.

 

 

                                    1637

 

23rd July – First reading of the new Book Of Common Prayer attempted at St. Giles’s Church, resulting in widespread rioting.

 

                                    1638

 

28th February – The launch of the Scottish National Covenant petition at Greyfriars Church, Edinburgh. . Montrose was among the first to sign it on the opening day.

 

                                    1639

 

13th Feb Huntly musters the Gordon Clan and the Aberdeenshire Royalists

21st March – Alexander Leslie captures Edinburgh Castle for the Covenant forces.

10th May  – Attack on Towie Barclay Castle at Turriff. Death of David Prat. 

14th May – King Charles reaches Newcastle.

14th May  – The Battle at Trot Of Turriff – Royalist Victory.

28th - 30th May  – Charles brings the English forces up to Berwick

18th June – The Pacification Of Berwick

18/19th  June – BATTLE AT THE BRIG O’ DEE 

23rd October, - Philip Skippon is made captain in the Honourable Artillery Company

 

                                    1640

12th January – Lord Wentworth becomes the Earl of Strafford.

13th April - Start of Short Parliament

20th May – Covenant forces ravage Gordon estates in Scotland.

5th May  – End of the Short Parliament

2cd June – Foundation in Scotland of the Committee Of Estates without Royal consent.

20th August  - Covenant invasion of Northern England 

29th August  -Newcastle falls to the Scots

26th October – Treaty Of Ripon Signed.

3rd November  – Start of the Long Parliament

11th November – Lord Strafford impeached on Parliamentary orders.

18th December – Archbishop Laud Impeached on Parliamentary orders.

 

                                    1641

 

22cd March – Strafford’s Trial begins. 

3rd May - Parliament Comittee set up to investigate the Army Plot.

12th May – Strafford Executed

11th June – Montrose imprisoned for slander towards Argyll.

10th August – Charles leaves London to visit Edinburgh.

14th August – Charles arrives in Edinburgh.

21st October – The Incident.

23rd October  – Start Of The Irish Rebellion

1st November – News of the Irish Rebellion reaches London.

6th November – Oliver Cromwell proposes Lord Essex be given control of the army for Parliament.

8th November – The Grand Remonstrance first read before Parliament.

17th November – Charles leaves Scotland to return to London.

22cd November – The Grand Remonstrance is carried in Parliament by 159 votes to 148.

25th November – Charles arrives back in London. The citizens give him a warm welcome.

1st December – Parliament’s Grand Remonstrance presented to the King.

15th December – Proposal to Parliament to make the Grand Remonstrance public.

23rd December – Charles calmly responds in writing to the charges in the Remonstrance.

 

                        1642

 

4th January  – Charles attempts to arrest  five members of Parliament.

8th. January - Philip Skippon given freedom of the city of London. 

10th January - Philip Skippon made Sergeant Major-General  in charge of the London Trained Bands 

10th January - Charles leaves London for Hampton Court. 

11th January - Triumphal return to London of the Five MP's by barge on the Thames, guarded by Skippon and the London Trained Bands. 

February 23rd – Queen Henrietta-Maria leaves for Holland, accompanied by Prince Rupert.

5th March  - Parliament issues a Militia Ordinance

11th March – Henrietta-Maria arrives at The Hague with requests for mercenaries and arms for the English King.

18th March – Charles sets up his headquarters in York.

3rd April – 10,000 Scots arrive in Ireland serving under Munro.

23rd April –King Charles is denied entry to Kingston-On-Hull by Parliamentarian supporters. 

10th May - Skippon parades the London Trained Band at Finsbury Park before the leading Parliament commanders. 

13th May - King Charles orders Skippon to come to York to serve under him directly. Skippon refuses. 

1st June – Parliament presents Charles The First with a list of Nineteen Propositions.

6th July  The sluices of the River Humber to flood Hull’s outskirts and create a moat to deter the Royalists besieging the town.

15th July  – Riots in Manchester. - The death of Richard Perseval, the first English casualty of the Wars.

15th July – Queen Henrietta-Maria appoints Prince Rupert Of The Rhine as General of Horse at The Hague. 

4th August - Battle of Marshall's Elm, Somerset.  (Royalist victory) .

20th August – Princes Rupert & Maurice arrive in Newcastle.

22cd August  - Charles 1st Raises the Royal Standard in Nottingham

25th September – Beginning of the siege of Manchester. Lord Strange becomes the 7th Earl Of Derby whilst leading the Royalists in the siege.

1st October – The week long siege of Manchester ends in Royalist defeat.

23rd October  – THE BATTLE AT EDGEHILL

29th October  - Charles enters Oxford, his HQ throughout the 1st Civil War

12th November - Storming of Brentford by the Royalists. 

13th November - The stand off at Turnham Green - few shots fired. parliament victory.

27th  November  – Royalists chased through Atherton and Leigh by Parliamentary forces, some drawn from the Manchester Garrisons. 

29th November - The King is in Oxford. 

                                    1643

 

22cd February – Queen Henrietta-Maria lands at Bridlington Bay with arms and mercenaries, in storm lashed conditions. Parliament attacks Bridlington   the next day. 

7th March - Queen Henrietta Marie reaches York safely. 

18th March - The Earl Of Derby takes Lancaster for the King. 

23rd May - The House Of Commons impeaches Queen Henreitta Marie. 

23rd June - The start of the siege of Corfe Castle. 

24th June - Battle of Chalgrave Field - Royalist victory resulting in the death of Parliament leader, John Hampden. 

30th June - Battle Of Adwalton Moor Royalist victory. Lady Fairfax captured by the Royalists. 

1st July - Lady Fairfax released from captivity unharmed.   

5th July - Battle Of Lansdown Disputed, costly Royalist victory resulting in the death of Sir Bevil Grenville (Parliamentarian MP) 

13th July - Battle Of Roundway Down Royalist victory  - Routing of William Waller's Roundhead forces. 

13th July - Charles and Henrietta Marie unite at Oxford. 

27th July - Royalists under Prince Rupert capture Bristol. 

4th August The siege of Corfe Castle ends. 

7-9th August - Peace demonstrations break out in London. 

3rd September - Skippon's and Essex's forces reach Addington and engage in the breaking of the siege of Gloucester. 

3rd September - Death under fire at Gloucester of Lucius Cary (Viscount Falkland),

19-20th September - The First Battle Of Newbury. (Parliament victory) 

25th September – Scots and English Sign The Solemn League & Covenant

11th October - Battle of Winceby - Parliament victory. 

6th-13th November - William Waller besieges Basing House.

8th December – John Pym dies of Cancer.

 

                                    1644

 

19th January - Leven’s Army of the Scottish League & Covenant invades England

22cd January Oliver Cromwell promoted to Lieutenant General Of Horse.

25th January – The Battle Of Nantwich.

28th January – Lord Leven captures Morpeth Castle.

2cd February The Marquis Of Newcastle takes the city of Newcastle 

27th February Siege of Lathom House starts.

13th February Montrose is officially made the King's Lieutenant General in Scotland.

15th March – Montrose goes to visit Newcastle at Durham, to request troops on the King’s instructions. He is only given 100 horses. 

19th March  – Huntly’s rising begins. 

29th March - Battle of Cheriton - Parliament victory. 

11th April - Battle of Selby - Parliament victory.

13th April  - Montrose invasion reaches Dumfries 

17th April - Queen Henrietta Marie leaves Oxford.

20th April  - Montrose driven back into England through lack of support. 

21st April – Irvine Of Drum & Nathaniel Gordon attack Auld Montrose town.

April 23rd – 150 Irish Catholic Royalists tied up and drowned at Milford Haven.

1st May - Quen Henrietta Marie arrives in Exeter. 

6th May – James Graham, 5th Earl of Montrose is made the 1st Marquis of Montrose.

12th June  – fall of Liverpool to Royalists.  

27th May - The siege of Latham House ends in Royalist victory.

28th May – Prince Rupert and Lord Byron storm Bolton and massacre many civilians. 

29th June Battle of Cropredy Bridge - Royalist Victory.

2cd July  – THE BATTLE OF MARSTON MOOR

8th   July - Irish reach Ardnamurchan 

11th July Basing House besieged again.

14th July Queen Henrietta-Maria sails for France and exile. 

16th July - The King surrenders York to Parliament. 

17th July – Lord Inchiquin deserts the Royalists to join the Parliamentary cause in Ireland.

15th August – The battle at Ribble Bridge. James Ogilvie captured by Fairfax.

18th August – Montrose enters Scotland disguised as a groom. 

21st August - Essex abandons his men and flees by sea from Royalist forces at Beacon Hill.

25th July - The King reaches Exeter. 

29th August- Montrose unites with MacColla, and raises the standard. 

31st August - 2cd September - Skippon surrounded by Royalists at Castle Dore, Lostwithiel and forced to surrender.

1st September THE BATTLE OF TIPPERMUIR

6th September   Montrose asked Dundee to surrender, but retreated without fight.

12th September – Montrose is excommunicated by order of the Committee Of Estates.

13th September THE BATTLE OF ABERDEEN

16th September  – Montrose leads his men into Rothiemurchus.

18th September - Argyll officially declares Montrose a traitor, and places a price of 20,000 Merks on his head, dead or alive.

19th September – Argyll captures Aberdeen for the Covenant forces.

7th October Montrose’s forces cross the Dee at Mark Of Drum & head North. 

13th October  – Newcastle falls to the Covenant Scots.

20th October Montrose reaches Strathbogie in Huntly

24th October  – Argyll enters Aberdeen

24th October – English Parliament pass a law to offer no quarter to any Irish soldiers  or civilians  serving the Royalist cause.

25th October   Argyll moves forces up the Dee to Kintore

26th October  – Montrose moves his men to Auchterless

27th October Argyll moves North to Old Meldrum  (abandoning plans to go to Strathbogie) Montrose Moves his men into Fyvie. 

27th October - The 2cd Battle Of Newbury. (narrow and costly Royalist victory).

28th October  – The skirmish at Fyvie Castle (Royalist victory)

30th October  – Argyll withdraws his forces from Fyvie Castle. Montrose goes back to Strathbogie, via Turriff & Rotheray

8th November - Montrose leaves Strathbogie and then heads into the hills

13th December – Beginning of the Storming of Inverary 

           

            1645

 

10th January - Execution of William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury

31st January  - Montrose’s army reached Kilchummin, - decision reached to attack Inverlochy.

2cd February THE BATTLE OF INVERLOCHY

 9th February  – Lord Gordon joins Montrose with his cavalry. .

17th February – The New Model Army is formed by Ordinance

18th February – Montrose and the Gordons take Elgin. 

4th March - The Prince Of Wales leaves Oxford, bound for Bristol.

15th March - Hurry attacks the rebels at Aberdeen

19th March – Montrose attacks Stonehaven.

25th March – Montrose attacks Brechin.

29th March – Montrose and Baille  see one another’s armies on opposite banks of the River Isla. 

3rd April - The Self Denying Ordinance.

4th April - Dundee taken by Montrose. Royalists chased from the city the same night. 

5th April - Skippon, now a  Major General, is given command of the infantry of The New Model Army, and breaks the news to his men.

19th April – Montrose joined by Lord Aboyne, and the young Master Of Napier.

2cd May – Montrose reaches Strathbogie.

8th May – Hurry reaches Inverness and gets reinforcements.

9th May THE BATTLE OF AULDEARN 

30th May - The storming of Leicester - Royalist victory.

10th June – Cromwell promoted to Lieutenant-General of Horse under Fairfax

14th June  – THE BATTLE OF NASEBY

28th June – David Leslie captures Carlisle for the Covenant Army.

2cd July THE BATTLE OF ALFORD 

10th August The Battle of Langport - Parliament victory.

15th August THE BATTLE OF KILSYTH

15th – 16th August  – Glasgow negotiates   a financial package to prevent plunder by Montrose, who agrees to their terms.

18th August – Montrose enters Glasgow as a conqueror.

18th August – King Charles gives up on his advance towards Scotland, and retreats from Doncaster.

3rd September  – MacColla leaves Montrose and O’Cahan for the last time at Bothwell

3rd to 8th September - MacColla camped at Cloverhill.

10th September – Montrose reaches Jedburgh.

10th September – Prince Rupert surrenders control of Bristol to Thomas Fairfax.

13th September THE BATTLE OF PHILIPAUGH

6th October - Clanranald and Macdonalds raid Glenlochy and surrounding Campbell territory, and have been doing so for a week). 

8th October - Cromwell takes charge of Parliament forces besieging Basing House.

12th October - Papal Nuncio Archbishop Rinuccini arrives in Ireland.

14th October - Cromwell storms Basing House.

19th October – Inverary ravaged by anti-Campbell Highlanders. 

10th September - Rupert Surrenders Bristol to Parliament. 

24th September - Battle Of Rowton Heath - Parliament victory.

 

                                                1646

 

3td February - Chester falls to Parliament.

4th February – the Committee Of Estates declares John Middleton as Commander in Chief in Scotland.

13th February - Covenant Levies routed at Colander by Highlanders 

27th February - Surrender of Corfe Castle

2cd March The Prince Of wales sails to the Scilly Isles. 

23rd March Battle of stow-In-The Wold, Gloucestershire - Royalist defeat.

23rd March – King Charles starts the negotiations with the Scots, which will lead to his surrender. 

16th April - The Prince Of Wales goes to Jersey.

23rd April – Hamilton released from imprisonment.

5th May – Charles surrenders to the Scots at Newark, officially ending the 1st Civil War. 

6th May - Newark Royalists reluctantly surrender on the orders of the King.

13th May – The Scots hold the King captive at Newcastle.

20th May – Argyll visits Charles in his captivity at Newcastle.

5th of June - In Ireland Roe O’Neil, wins a major victory at Benhurb over General Munro.

26th June – The Prince Of Wales leaves Jersey to join his mother, Henrietta-Maria in exile in France. 

13th July - Oxford reluctantly surrenders on the King's orders.

16th July – The King writes to Montrose to ask him to disband his army.

22cd July – Montrose meets with Middleton under truce to discuss safe conduct terms for his men before he formally disbands his army.

30th July - Montrose officially dissolves his army. At Rattray

3rd September. – Montrose leaves Scotland for European exile. He sails first to Norway.

 

                                    1647

 

30th January  – Scots Surrender the King to the English Parliament

3rd February - £10,000 instalment paid to the Scots, who then hands Charles to the English Parliamentary forces that take him to Holdenby House.

11th February – The last of the Scottish Covenant Army leave English soil and head home.

21st March - First Saffron Walden  meeting between MP's and army officers to discuss grievances. 

15th April - 2cd Saffron Walden meeting. 

28th April - Agitators speak in the House Of Commons. 

6th -7th May - Skippon presides over a heated meeting and petition signing by agitators within the New Model Army at Saffron Walden. 

24th May Leslie got to Kintyre, and engages MacColla’s men at Rhunahaoerdine.

4th June – King Charles moved from Holdenby House to Newmarket when the Parliamentarians suspect a rescue attempt.

6-7th June – Most of MacColla’s men arrive in Ireland. .

16th June - Army moves against eleven members of Parliament, including Holles. 

19th June- Charles is relocated again, this time to Richmond, near London.

19th June - Agitator debates take place at Royston, near Cambridge. Skippon was in attendance. 

June 24th - Leslie lays siege to Colkitto’s forces on Islay. .

July 1st - Colkitto is captured on Islay

3rd July – Charles is moved to Caversham.

July 5th - The siege of Islay ends.

17th July – George Monck is given control of all of the English Parliamentary forces in Ireland. 

6th August - The New Model army takes over control of London. 

8th August – Ireland, THE BATTLE AT DUNGAN’S HILL Irish Confederation defeat.

12th August – The King is moved to Oatlands.

24th August – The King is moved to Hampden Court. 

28th October - Opening of The Putney Debates.

11th November – Urged and aided by the Scots, Charles escapes from Hampden Court.

13th November – Charles  gets to the Isle of Wight and is held as a virtual prisoner in Carisbrook Castle.

13th November – THE BATTLE OF KNOCKMANOSS. Ireland The death of Alastair MacColla.

14th December – Parliament Presents Charles with the Four Bills (Four Propositions).

15th December – The King and the Scots create the first copies of the Engagement agreement.

26th December – The King & The Scots agree on The Engagement

28th December – Charles rejects the Four Bills.

 

                                    1648

23rd March - Rowland Laughame's revolt begins. 

3rd April – Lord Inchiquin defects from Parliamentary support and rejoins the Royalist Army in Ireland.

20th April - The Duke Of York escapes from St. James's and heads for Holland. 

8th May - Battle of St. Fagan's - defeat of Rowland Laughame by Parliament. 

26th May - Collapse of the Kentish revolt. 

27th May - Navy revolt against Parliament. 

1st June - Battle of Maidstone - Parliament victory. 

13th June - Royalists take Colchester & its castle. 

8th July – Hamilton’s Engagers Army march into England.

10th Jult - Battle of Saint Neots - Royalist defeat. 

17th August – THE BATTLE OF PRESTON (Royalist defeat) 

18th August - THE BATTLE OF WIGAN (Royalist defeat) 

25th August 1648 – Hamilton surrenders.

27th August Parliament captures Colchester and its castle. 

11th September - humble petition presented by The Levellers. 

24th October – Official end of the Thirty Tears War.

29th October - Assasination of New Model Army member Rainsborough. 

1st December – King Charles is removed from Carisbrook Castle.

4th December The King is forcibly moved back to the mainland and incarcerated in Hurst Castle. – Strong protests from English Parliament, as the move was made without their consent.

6th December – Pride’s Purge.

14th December – Cromwell personally interrogates Hamilton at the Tower Of London, to no avail.

19th December – The King is moved to Winchester.

23rd December – The King is relocated to Windsor Castle.

 

 

                                    1649

 

4th January – Argyll, on behalf of the Scots, denounces the pending trial of the King of England and Scotland.

20th January - Start of the Trial of Charles 1st

27th January – Charles is sentenced to death.

30th January  – Execution of Charles 1st.

4th February – Charles 2cd learns of the execution of his father.

5th February - Charles 2cd declared King by the Scots

9th March – Hamilton is executed

17th March – Abolition of the monarchy by the English Parliamentarians.

13th April - Charles 2cd gives Montrose permission to negotiate with European kings and states on his behalf

19th May – Montrose declared Admiral of Scotland when Charles 2cd prefers his proposals to those of Covenant representatives, who are dismissed from the court at the Hague.

19th May - England is declared to be a Commonwealth. 

22cd February – Charles 2cd Declares Montrose his Captain-General in Scotland.

19th May  – England is declared to be a Commonwealth.

2cd August - The Battle of Rathmines - Irish Royalist defeat. 

13th August – Cromwell heads for Ireland with the New Model Army.

15th August – Cromwell arrives in Dublin.

11th September  Battle of Drogheda

11th October  – Battle of Wexford.

12th November - Montrose arrives at Gothenburg in Sweden to raise troops for his expedition back to Scotland.

 

 

                                    1650

 

11th January – Charles  2cd, at Breda, calls  for a Covenant-Royalist Alliance against the English Parliamentarians.

23rd March – Montrose lands on the Orkney Isles with his Danish/Germanic troops in preparation for an invasion of the Scottish mainland.

27th April – The Battle Of Carbisdale – Defeat of Montrose, who goes on the run.

30th April – Montrose captured by an act of betrayal.

1st May – Charles 2cd signs the Breda Treaty, pledging full support for the Covenant forces.

8th May – Montrose is handed over to David Leslie at Tain.

15th May – Montrose, a prisoner under escort,  meets his children for the last time at Southesk.

18th May – Montrose is brought to Edinburgh as a prisoner.

21st May  – Execution Of Montrose

26th May – Cromwell leaves Ireland. 

26th May - Ireton takes control of Ireland. 

29th May – Sir John Hurry and other followers of Montrose are executed.

1st June  – Cromwell gets back to London.

2cd June – Charles 2cd sets sail for Scotland

23rd June – Charles 2cd arrives in Speymouth, Scotland. He is obliged to sign the Covenant before he invited to disembark. 

26th June - Thomas Fairfax resigns from his commission. 

28th June – Cromwell begins the march towards Scotland with 16,000 members of the New Model Army Fairfax has decided not to be involved in the Parliamentary campaigns any longer.

22cd July – Cromwell crosses the border into Scotland.

3rd September - BATTLE OF DUNBAR - New Model Army victory.

                                   

                                    1651

 

1st January  – Charles 2cd Crowned at Scone in Scotland. Argyll personally puts the crown on the new King’s head.

17th January – Argyll resigns from office and retires to his Highland estates.

8th February to July – Cromwell is severely ill. Periodically he will be forced to take to his bed. 

31st July – Charles 2cd and the Royalist Army begin their march towards England.

5th August – Charles 2cd crosses the English border.

7th August – Cromwell’s Army mobilizes and begins its pursuit of Charles 2cd.

3rd September – THE BATTLE OF WORCESTER

6th September – Charles 2cd hides in an Oak tree.

16th October – Execution of Lord Strange, The Earl Of Derby, in Bolton. 

19th October – Charles 2cd escapes to France from Shoreham, Sussex. 

 

                                    1652

 

19th August – Argyll signs an agreement with the English declaring that he accepts their authority and that he will not raise arms against them.

 

                                    1653

 

21st April - Cromwell dissolves the Rump Parliament.

 

                                    1654

 

11th February – Arrest of eleven known members of the Royalist Conspiracy known as the Sealed Knot.

 

                                    1658

 

3rd September – Death of Oliver Cromwell

 

                                    1660

 

                            The Restoration Of The Monarchy

 

3rd February. Monck seizes control of Parliament and restores the Rump.

May 23rd - Charles 2cd arrives back in Britain.

May 29th – Charles 2cd arrives in London on his birthday – The date has since been called Oak Apple Day.

 

                                    1661

 

23rd April - Charles 2cd crowned at Westminster Abbey

 

                                    1669

 

21st August – Death of Queen Henrietta-Maria.

 

 

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